By Chris Ebert

Note to readers: Only the charts and the Market Summary change from week to week. All other text remains the same, in order to allow regular readers to quickly absorb the entire Brief.

Each Thursday evening, we take some time to reconcile some of the varied options indicators available for the S&P 500. These indicators are unique to zentrader, and were developed in order to give readers an edge in the stock market.

These indicators were meant to be tangible – easily understood at a glance – thus providing an instant snapshot of the stock market to anyone regardless of trading experience, or the lack of experience.

Taking the Stock Market’s Temperature

First, we take the stock market’s Temperature. We need to know if the stock market is hot right now, or if it has cooled off. In other words, is this a hot Bull market in which stock prices are going up, or a cold Bear market in which stock prices are tumbling?

To take the Temperature of the S&P 500, we look at the performance of a simple option trade known as a Covered Call. Covered Call trading is almost always profitable in a Bull market, and very often results in losses in a Bear market. Conversely, if Covered Calls* are profitable it is currently a Bull market, and if Covered Calls are returning losses it is a Bear market.

 SNP Temperature 81

We consider the point at which Covered Call trading breaks even – returns zero profit and zero loss – to be an S&P 500 Temperature of zero. Then we determine whether the S&P 500 is above or below that all-important break-even point. By measuring the distance of the current level of the S&P 500 from the break-even point we determine the Temperature. Above zero indicates a Bull market; below zero indicates a Bear market is in progress.

 Points Above Bear Jan 2016

A historical 10-year chart of the S&P 500 Temperature shows its importance as an indicator. Not only are Bear markets highly-correlated with sub-zero Temperatures, the sub-zero readings often occur before stock prices have broadly declined 20%. Furthermore, the Temperature rarely falls below zero during a Bull market, so no matter how severe a pullback occurs in a Bull market, the uptrend almost always continues as long as the Temperature doesn’t dip much below the zero mark.

Temperature Determines Trading Climate

Next, we use the S&P 500 Temperature to determine the type of trading environment that is most likely to be prevalent in the stock market. Perhaps not surprisingly, hotter temperatures tend to coincide with a more positive outlook, thus more exuberance for those buying stocks. Lower Temperatures tend to correlate with fear and a propensity to sell stocks.

 Options Market Stages S&P 500 Temperature1

It should be noted that the Temperature ranges above represent a continuum. That is to say, they are not written in stone. For example, a Temperature of 1 degree below zero does not somehow magically represent a shift to a Bear market. Nevertheless, the ranges have been historically accurate in a wide variety of market environments for well over a decade.

All stock-market indicators are prone to fail at times, and the Temperature is no different. Though rare, below zero readings have occurred outside of Bear markets. Most recently, the S&P 500 Temperature dipped below zero in October 2014 without an accompanying Bear market ensuing, one of only a few such occurrences in past decades.

Once we have associated the current Temperature with the current Stage of the market, it is possible to plot that Stage on a graph.

Trading Climate fits Elliott Wave Analysis

Traders often use an Elliott Wave analysis to help determine the reason for current trends in the stock market. Because traders act as a herd, and because herds tend to react in a somewhat predictable pattern, stock prices tend to follow a pattern as well. That pattern can sometimes be reasonably outlined using the Elliott Wave theory.

Here we use the current S&P 500 Temperature to determine the current Stage of the stock market. Then we mark the most appropriate spot on a typical Elliott Wave which correlates to previously-calculated Stage.

 Stocks and Options at a Glance 01-07-16

Since most S&P 500 Temperatures can only be achieved during one specific Options Market Stage, choosing the current location on the Elliott Wave is simply a matter of matching the current Stage to the Wave. Some Temperatures, though, can occur in a number of different Options Market Stages, and require some additional insight.

For example, Bull Market Stage 2 and Bull Market Stage 0 each occur at a Temperature between +125 and +200. As can be seen on the Elliott Wave above, Bull Market Stage 0 only occurs after a major decline in stock prices has bottomed out, while Bull Market Stage 2 occurs when stock prices are consistently rising. Thus, we can usually differentiate Stage 0 from Stage 2 by knowing how the market has been behaving in recent weeks.

Similarly, a Temperature of 0 to +75 is associated with four different Options Market Stages:

  • Bull Market Stage 3 occurs only when stock prices have recently risen but have hit a brick wall of resistance and are having trouble rising further.
  • Bull Market Stage 5 occurs only after stock prices have tested a major support (such as the 200-day simple moving average) without sinking into a Bear market.
  • Bear Market Stage 6 occurs only after stock prices have fallen well below a major support (200-day simple moving average) and then recovered quickly in a matter of days or weeks.
  • Bear Market Stage 9 occurs only after a protracted period of declining stock prices lasting many weeks or months.

Taking into account those extra bits of information, it then becomes possible to determine the current Options Market Stage rather accurately. Plotting it on the Elliott Wave chart then becomes just as accurate. We can then use the Options Market Stage calculated above to determine the current trading environment in the stock market.

Options Market Stages

Click on chart to enlarge

Since the market is now rather bearish, using the Elliott Wave as a guide, we may find it helpful to plot the expected movement of the S&P 500 based on past Bear markets.

Progression of Bear Market Options Stages 2015

Verifying the Analysis

As can be seen on the Elliott Wave graph, the “You Are Here” sign points to a specific combination of profit and loss on some simple option strategies.

  • Covered Calls and Naked Puts
  • Long Calls and Married Puts
  • Long Straddles and Strangles

If the S&P 500 Temperature has allowed us to choose our current location on the Elliott Wave graph correctly, we should be able to verify it by looking at the performance of those three strategies.

The following chart shows the current performance of each of those three strategies using at-the-money options opened 4-months ago on $SPY (NYSEARCA:SPY) which expire this week.

OMS 01-07-16

10 Year History of the above chart is now available.

Breaking it Down

To further illustrate the current stock market trading environment, we can break down the chart of the Options Market Stages to show the individual performance of each of the three options strategies.

  • The performance of Covered Calls and Naked Puts shows us whether the current stock market is most likely to predominantly have either a bullish or a bearish sentiment.
  • The performance of Long Calls and Married Puts tells us exactly how strong or weak any bullish sentiment is likely to be.
  • The performance of Long Straddles and Long Strangles indicates whether the current trend is surprisingly over-extended (and therefore needs to reverse) or whether the current market has become excessively range-bound (and needs to break out of the range) or whether it is normal (neither in urgent need of a reversal nor in need of a breakout).

#CCNPI – The S&P 500 Covered Call/Naked Put Index

 CCNPI 01-07-16

#LCMPI – The S&P 500 Long Call/Married Put Index

LCMPI 01-07-16 

#LSSI – The S&P 500 Long Straddle/Strangle Index

 LSSI 01-07-16

Market Summary

The options are pretty much self-explanatory this week, which is a nice change.

The S&P 500 Temperature is consistent with Bear Market Stage 6.

Bear Market Stage 6 fits well on an Elliott Wave chart of the S&P 500.

The current trading environment matches the description of Bear Market Stage 6 in the Options Market Stages , which is based on past occurrences of the stage.

The chart of the Options Market Stages shows how the S&P 500 has remained confined inside the boundaries of Bear Market Stage 6 for the past several months.

The #CCNPI currently shows bullish emotions among traders, but the #LCMPI shows no strength or conviction behind those bullish feelings. The lack of conviction is causing traders to exit stocks on every negative news headline. Additionally, the #LSSI shows the S&P 500 is primed and ready for a major breakout of the range of the past few months. While the breakout could certainly be towards new highs on a release of good economic news, this is also one of the most sensitive types of environment to negative news, in which a suitable negative development can send stock prices tumbling.

It has been said that “the chart creates the news, and not t’other way around”. Perhaps never is that statement more apt than during Bear Market Stage 6. Now is the time when the chart (Stage 6) gives traders the jitters. The media are then happy to supply the excuses for each sell-off. Is it oil today? Or maybe China? Whatever the reason, the excuse for the sell-off may seem plausible. But, many traders who have lived through past instances of Bear Market Stage 6 tend to blame each sell-off on the existence of Stage 6 itself. 

Anyone can make up a plausible excuse after the fact; it doesn’t lessen the possibility that the real excuse was a chart undergoing Stage 6, no matter how trusted the media may appear, no matter how pervasive the excuse may be across all kinds of media outlets.

If the chart is truly working in traders’ collective subconscious to intensify sell-offs, then the news is irrelevant. The news doesn’t cause the sell-offs, the chart does. That means the chart creates the news, not t’other way around.

An analysis of how the chart can create the news is available here.

* Option strategies referenced above are analyzed for profit or loss on expiration day only and are opened using an at-the-money strike price, 4-months to expiration, using options traded on a broad-based ETF such as $SPY (NYSEARCA:SPY)

The preceding is a post by Christopher Ebert, Chief Options Strategist at Astrology Traders (which offers subscribers unique stock-trading perspectives and options education) and co-author of the popular option trading book “Show Me Your Options!” Chris uses his engineering background to mix and match options as a means of preserving portfolio wealth while outpacing inflation. Questions about constructing a specific option trade, or option trading in general, may be entered in the comment section below, or emailed to OptionScientist@zentrader.ca

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Related Options Posts:

Options Suggest Action-Packed Start to 2016

A Primer on Bear Market Stage 7

Thursday Evening Options Brief 10-Dec-2015

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